Self-esteem is also an indicator: men with high self-esteem and women with low self-esteem are more likely to have multiple sexual partners, but hookups are less likely among both genders when they have high self-esteem.
Another study was based on a survey of over 18,000 college students from ages 18–25.
This survey asked questions like how many sexual partners they have had since graduating high school, how many sexual partners per year, and how many times per week they have sex.
On the other hand, hook up culture is thought to be oppressive and monolithic, with intimacy only occurring within a specific context.
Jennifer Aubrey and Siobhan Smith have found that between genders there are minimal differences when it comes to behavior and frequency in hookups; on the other hand, women still face a harder social stigma, because their social status decreases with increased sexual partners, while men's social status increases with more sexual partners. Currier, she explores how the phrase "hooking up" conveys different meanings depending on whether a man or woman uses it when describing their sexual encounters; furthermore, Currier notes that men use "hooking up" to emphasize their masculinity and heterosexuality whereas women use the phrase to preserve their femininity by being strategically ambiguous in order to downplay their sexual desires.
The term "hooking up", meaning an instance of casual sex, differs from hook up culture.
A hook up is an act that involves sexual intimacy, claimed by many to be a sexually liberating act.People are marrying and beginning families at ages later than previous generations while becoming sexually mature at an earlier age.As a result, Garcia and other scholars argue that young adults are able to reproduce physiologically but are not psychologically or socially ready to 'settle down' and begin a family.Those who have engaged in hookups that involve penetrative sex are 600% more likely to hookup again during the same semester.Subculture can affect gender roles and sexuality, and youth subcultures are particularly susceptible to peer pressure.The term's definition can vary depending on the person or on the age group.