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The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization.

In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years.

Landa Jocano called the "Barangic Phase" of early Philippine history, beginning from the 14th century through the arrival of Spanish colonizers and the beginning of the Philippines' colonial period.

Exchanges with Chinese, Malay, Indian, and Islamic nations occurred.

Then, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans.

Regarding the relations of early Philippine polities with the various state-level polities of Indonesia and Malaysia, legendary accounts often mention the interaction of early Philippine polities with the Srivijaya empire, but there is not much archeological evidence to definitively support such a relationship.

Although different cultures had different terms to describe them, this three-tier structure invariably consisted of an apex nobility class, a class of "freemen", and a class of dependent debtor-bondsmen called "alipin" or "oripun." Although the precise political relationships between these polities is unclear in the text of the inscription, the artifact is usually accepted as evidence of intra- and inter-regional political linkages as early as 900 CE.) in northeastern Mindanao which is the first polity from the Philippine archipelago recorded as having sent a tribute mission to the Chinese empire – on March 17, 1001 CE.

As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed in quick succession, which then spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War.

Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation.

These "tributary states" nominally acknowledged the Sinocentric system which saw China and the imperial court as the cultural center of the world.

Among the early Philippine polities, this arrangement fulfilled the requirements for trade with China, but did not actually translate into political or military control.

Madja-as was founded on Panay island (named after the destroyed state of Pannai allied under Srivijaya which was located in Sumatra).

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