New collagen production was determined by studying skin biopsy samples using immunohistological techniques. B.; Dermatology, UMDNJ, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School; Disease Management and Clinical Outcomes, 1998, 6-141.
The study found, that after one month, copper-peptides had the most significant effect on collagen production. GHK-Cu containing liquid foundation tested on skin appearance, skin elasticity and epidermal thickness in an 8 week study.
This method depends on the hydroxy acids to dissolve a very small amount of the scar, stretch mark, skin tag, or mole daily while the copper peptides enhance subsequent skin repair and possibly also act by activation of metalloproteinases and suppression of the production of the scar producing growth factor TGF-beta1 (references are above).
It appears that, under proper stimuli, normal skin will replace the slowly-dissolved skin lesions.
While all tissue remodeling copper peptides may be similar, most information at this time is about skin repair and renewal. This drop in oil production becomes more serious after age 45. The biosynthesis and breakdown of collagen, elastin, and water-holding GAGs exists in a dynamic balance in young healthy skin.
First generation copper peptides are GHK-copper and chemical analogs that I developed from 1969 to 1991. However after age 25, the skin's production of collagen, elastin, the water-holding GAGs is reduced while the rate of breakdown of these factors is increased and starts wrinkle formation and loss of elasticity.
Damaged collagen and elastin are replaced with new elastic and firm collagen and elastin.
This removes scar tissue and restores skin elasticity and reduces wrinkles.
The white-yellow colored areas are the ultrasonic reflection from skin areas that are more dense because of closer cellular binding and increased amounts of collagen and elastin.
This is an effect that is opposite to the usual thinning and loosening of skin during aging.
The activation of such proteins may explain the potent scar reduction properties of such creams.
Copper peptides produce a better skin renewal in combination with exfoliation or various controlled skin damage methods.
An actual regulation loop exists in connective tissue, constituted by peptides generated by ECM degradation and connective tissue cells.