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Nevertheless, true believers are limited to the ranks of die-hard conspiracy theorists, and, outside the United States, belief in it is usually correlated with general anti-US sentiment. If you really want to know more, you can read the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, a collection of transcripts, photos, videos and other information about the landings. If you've ever thought it would be fun to play a game about the Space Race, there's always There is, in fact, no single concrete Moon landing conspiracy narrative.
There are many, depending on the believers' gullibility or desire to believe.
Aforementioned Bill Kaysing argued for a middle ground between this option and the previous option: namely, that Apollo spacecraft went into a low orbit on remote control, but astronauts themselves were whisked away to the "moon set" in Nevada before launch.
The fact that an Apollo spacecraft would have been clearly visible on earth orbit is completely ignored.
The exact form of such beliefs varies and can cover anything from "the Apollo astronauts never went to space" to "they eventually landed on the Moon, but the first landing was faked", not to mention wilder claims ("the Apollo program was a front – they went, but on flying saucers").
In the US, the hoax claim was originated by libertarian writer Bill Kaysing (1922-2005) with his 1976 book We Never Went to the Moon: America's Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle.The amount of drivel written about the Apollo landings could fill a wiki on its own.Following is just a sample of the kind of "evidence" and misinterpretations that are used to prop up the various conspiracy theories. A lot of the arguments are various forms of argument from incredulity and exploit laypeople's ignorance and/or misconceptions about space, space travel or even more mundane things like photography.Proponents of such claims never bother to check the facts, such as what kinds of ionizing radiation exist in space, what are their sources, what are the expected radiation levels and what protective measures are taken against them.Ignorance of space radiation and its effects can lead to amusing results, such as claiming that passing through the Van Allen belts would literally melt the Apollo spacecraft while Van Allen himself stated that it's all nonsense.The following are only brief summaries of some of the most popular positions: Flat Earthers believe space travel to be impossible for some reason, so the astronauts never left the Earth and the whole thing was filmed on the ground. Johnson, president of the Flat Earth Society, claimed that until the Moon landings "almost no one seriously considered the world a ball.